Frequently Asked Questions
What is cellular bioenergetics? Why is it important?
Cellular Bioenergetics is the study of the metabolic pathways cells use to produce and use energy: mitochondrial respiration [or OXPHOS] and glycolysis. Investigation of these pathways provides new insight into the role of cellular bioenergetics in Aging, Cancer, Cardiovascular, Cell Physiology, Toxicology & Hepatobiology, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Mitochondrial Diseases, Neurodegeneration, Obesity, Diabetes, & Metabolic Disorders, Screening, and Translational Medicine.
What does the XF Analyzer measure?
The XF Analyzer measures the flux of oxygen, the oxygen consumption rate [OCR], and the flux of protons, the extracellular acidification rate [ECAR], in the medium immediately surrounding cells in a microplate. OCR is proportional to mitochondrial respiration, while ECAR is proportional to glycolysis. The XF Analyzer measures these two energy pathways simultaneously, in real time, without labels or dyes. View a two-minute video on the Energy Pathways for details.
What do rates of change in oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification tell me about my cells?
Observing the interplay between the two major energy-producing pathways of the cell reveals the metabolic phenotype and how it responds to substrates, stress, or pathological conditions. Studying the system's capacity to meet changing energy demands enables researchers to connect physiological traits of cells with genomic and proteomic data to generate new insights into obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative function and safety toxicity.
How does the XF Analyzer work?
Seahorse Bioscience XF technology combines solid-state sensors, electro-optical detection and proprietary consumables to enable the real-time measurement of cell metabolism in minutes. The sensors in XF cartridges measure the flux of oxygen and protons in the transient microchambers created by our specially designed tissue culture microplates in real time. The software translates the flux to the rates of oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification. For additional details, visit our How It Works webpage.
What are the advantages of using the Seahorse technology?
The user-friendly XF Analyzer enables high-throughput, real-time, label-free kinetic measurements in very small quantities of cells (as few as 1% of cells required by other methods). The 96- and 24-well platforms allow parallel processing of multiple samples, as well as replicates for increased confidence in results, and fit easily into normal cell culture workflow. Most assays can be completed in 1.5-2 hours, while disposable cartridges and microplates mean no cleaning and less risk of contamination.
What types of assays can I run on the XF Analyzer?
- Mitochondrial Respiration
- Mitochondrial Dysfunction
- Spare Respiratory Capacity
- Glycolysis and Glycolytic Reserve
- Warburg Effect
- Mitochondrial Toxicity
- Oxidative Phosphorylation
- Metabolic Phenotypes and Dependencies
- Bioenergetic pathway utilization
- Glucose metabolism
- Fatty acid oxidation
- Glutamine oxidation
- And more...
The XF Analyzer has been used to measure:
Nearly 300 publications citing XF data are catalogued by research area.
What kinds of biological samples work with the Seahorse?
Virtually all adherent and non-adherent cells work in the XF analyzer, including primary cells from various species and tissue, cell lines, tumor and suspension cells, islets of Langerhans, and even isolated mitochondria. Other types of samples including zebrafish and C. elegans have also been used. Non-adherent cells and samples must be adhered to the assay microplate by spinning or using matrices such as collagen, poly-D-Lysine, or Cell-Tak™
How do I use the injection ports?
Seahorse has developed XF Cell Stress Test kits consisting of pre-calibrated, controlled reagents to simplify the process of teasing out parameters of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. However, any soluble compounds may be added through the injection ports of the cartridge. The Seahorse scientific support team is available to assist with experimental design and data analysis for your application. View a 2-minute video on the Drug Injection Ports.
How do I get a quote for the instrument?
Simply fill out the quote request form and one of our representatives will be in touch with you soon. Need support to apply for a grant for the XF Analyzer? The Seahorse Grant Expeditor Package can help you simplify your grant application process.
What size Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) is appropriate to use with my XF Analyzer?
To maintain operation of an assay during a power outage, a 2200VA UPS will ensure operation of the XF Analyzer for approximately 2 hours, sufficient to complete most assays. One consideration is that a 2200VA UPS weighs approximately 140lbs, so determination of lab power reliability could establish that the use of a smaller capacity UPS would be sufficient.
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Next Seahorse Webinar
Christian Frezza, PhD,
Hutchison/MRC Research Centre, Cambridge, UK
May 29, 2013
Advanced XF Training
Understanding When and How to Use Intact Cells and Isolated Mitochondria in Investigating Bioenergetics
XFe Extracellular Flux Analyzers
The world's most advanced cell metabolism analyzer.Learn More